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ServletContext与Web应用以及Spring容器启动

技术杂谈 勤劳的小蚂蚁 5个月前 (12-30) 130次浏览 已收录 0个评论 扫描二维码

一、ServletContext对象获取Demo


Servlet容器在启动时会加载Web应用,并为每个Web应用创建唯一的ServletContext对象。

可以把ServletContext看作一个Web应用的服务器端组件的共享内存。在ServletContext中可以存放共享数据,有4个读取或者设置共享数据的方法:


CounterServlet.java

package com.servletContext.demo;

import java.io.IOException;

import javax.servlet.ServletConfig;
import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

publicclassCounterServletextendsHttpServlet{

   @Override
   publicvoidinit(ServletConfig config)throws ServletException {
       super.init(config);
   }

   @Override
   protectedvoiddoGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp)throws ServletException, IOException {
       doPost(req, resp);
   }

   @Override
   protectedvoiddoPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp)throws ServletException, IOException {

       // 获得ServletContext的引用
       ServletContext context = getServletContext();

       // 从ServletContext读取count属性
       Integer count = (Integer) context.getAttribute(“count”);


       // 如果没有读到count属性,那么创建count属性,并设置初始值为0
       if(count == null) {
           System.out.println(“context中还没有count属性呢”);
           count = new Integer(0);
           context.setAttribute(“count”, count);
       }
       count = count + 1;
       // count增加之后还要写回去,引用为什么还要重新存回去
       context.setAttribute(“count”, count);
       System.out.println(“您是第” + count + “个访问的!”);

   }

   @Override
   publicvoiddestroy(){
       super.destroy();
   }

}


从上述代码中可见通过getServletContext()方法可以直接获得ServletContext的引用。

二、Spring和ServletContext的关系


缘何这两货会扯上关系呢?

在使用Spring的时候想必对如下代码肯定熟悉:

// 获取Spring容器
ApplicationContext ctx = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext(“bean.xml”);

// 从Spring容器中根据id获得对象的引用        
User user = (User) ctx.getBean(“user”);

// 调用对象的方法        
user.add();

这样做是最低级的,也就是通过加载配置文件来获得Spring容器,再来获取对象的应用,在Web项目中,每次都通过加载配置文件显得效率低下,而且繁琐,这里介绍一种另外的方法。想在Web项目启动的时候就把Spring容器也给启动了,不用每次都手动去启动。

这里就用到了上面介绍的ServletContext了,每次Web项目启动的时候都会创建ServletContext对象,而该对象又有一个ServletContextListener的接口,监视ServletContext的创建,这样就可以调用这个接口的回调方法来启动Spring容器了。(但是这里我有个疑问,随着项目启动的不止有ServletContext啊,过滤器好像也随着项目启动,为啥不在过滤器的init()方法里面启动Spring容器呢?)

先来看看这个接口是啥定义:

package javax.servlet;

import java.util.EventListener;

/**
* Implementations of this interface receive notifications about changes to the
* servlet context of the web application they are part of. To receive
* notification events, the implementation class must be configured in the
* deployment descriptor for the web application.
*/

publicinterfaceServletContextListenerextendsEventListener{

   /**
    ** Notification that the web application initialization process is starting.
    * All ServletContextListeners are notified of context initialization before
    * any filter or servlet in the web application is initialized.
    */
   publicvoidcontextInitialized(ServletContextEvent sce);

   /**
    ** Notification that the servlet context is about to be shut down. All
    * servlets and filters have been destroy()ed before any
    * ServletContextListeners are notified of context destruction.
    */
   publicvoidcontextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent sce);

}


第一段注释描述的是:这个接口的实现接受和Web应用关联的servlet context的变更的通知。为了接受通知事件,这个类的实现必须在web应用的部署描述符配置。

第二段注释的描述是:通知是在Web应用初始化的时候开始的。所有的ServletContextListeners都会在web应用中任何的filter和servlet初始话之前接收到context初始化的时候通知。

第三段注释的描述是:servlet context将要被关闭的时候的通知。所有的filter和servlet会在任何ServletContextListeners收到context销毁的通知之前就被销毁了。

另外再来看看ServeletContextEvent.java

package javax.servlet;

/**
* This is the event class for notifications about changes to the servlet
* context of a web application.
*
* @see ServletContextListener
* @since v 2.3
*/
publicclassServletContextEventextendsjava.util.EventObject{

   privatestaticfinallong serialVersionUID = 1L;

   /**
    * Construct a ServletContextEvent from the given context.
    *
    * @param source
    *            – the ServletContext that is sending the event.
    */
   publicServletContextEvent(ServletContext source){
       super(source);
   }

   /**
    * Return the ServletContext that changed.
    *
    * @return the ServletContext that sent the event.
    */
   public ServletContext getServletContext(){
       return (ServletContext) super.getSource();
   }
}

publicServletContextEvent(ServletContext source);

这个方法是从一个给定的ServletContext构建一个ServletContextEvent。而public ServletContext getServletContext();则是返回已经改变的ServletContext,暂时不知道有啥用,是不是给监听器塞ServletContext用的啊?

想自己也写一个ServletContextListener呢!

package com.servletContext.demo;

import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextEvent;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;

publicclassMyServletContextListenerimplementsServletContextListener{

   @Override
   publicvoidcontextInitialized(ServletContextEvent sce){

       // 从web.xml中拿出添加的参数
       ServletContext ctx = sce.getServletContext();
       String initParam = ctx.getInitParameter(“myContextListener”);
       System.out.println(“我配置的初始化参数为:” + initParam);

       // 利用初始化参数找到配置文件机型初始化
       System.out.println(“context初始化了咯”);
       System.out.println(“这里假装初始化Spring容器…..”);

   }

   @Override
   publicvoidcontextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent sce){

       // 在销毁之前获得ServletContext
       ServletContext ctx = sce.getServletContext();

       // 正好刚刚存了一个值进去了,销毁之前拿出来瞅瞅
       Integer count = (Integer) ctx.getAttribute(“count”);

       System.out.println(“在销毁之前,count的值为:” + count);

   }

}


这他喵的居然真的可以!

web.xml为:

<?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>
 <display-name>ServletContext</display-name>
 <welcome-file-list>
   <welcome-file>index.html</welcome-file>
   <welcome-file>index.htm</welcome-file>
   <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file>
   <welcome-file>default.html</welcome-file>
   <welcome-file>default.htm</welcome-file>
   <welcome-file>default.jsp</welcome-file>
 </welcome-file-list>

   <!– 假装为Spring监听器提供启动参数,其实是给ServletContext提供的 –>
   <context-param>
       <param-name>myContextListener</param-name>
       <!– 这里如果bean.xml在包cn.ssh下,那么就应该写为:cn/ssh/bean.xml –>
       <param-value>这是我设置的值</param-value>
   </context-param>

   <!– 配置Spring的监听器 –>
   <listener>
       <listener-class>com.servletContext.demo.MyServletContextListener</listener-class>
   </listener>

 <servlet>
   <servlet-name>count</servlet-name>
   <servlet-class>com.servletContext.demo.CounterServlet</servlet-class>
 </servlet>
 <servlet-mapping>
   <servlet-name>count</servlet-name>
   <url-pattern>/counter</url-pattern>
 </servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

测试结果为:


看来真的是可以了,这里关闭服务器的时候Console中的内容也被清除了,暂时没有看到ServletContext销毁时的消息。

Spring提供的是ContextLoaderListener,这个监听器实现了ServletContextListener接口,可以作为Listener使用,它会在创建的时候自动查找WEB-INF/下的applicationContext.xml文件,因此,如果只有一个配置文件,并且文件名为applicationContext.xml,则只需要在web.xml中加入对Listener的配置就可以。

如果有多个配置文件需要加载,则要考虑使用<context-param…/>元素来确定配置文件的文件名。ContextLoaderListener加载的时候,会查找名为contextConfigLocation的初始化参数。因此<context-param…/>时应该指定参数名为contextConfigLocation。

<!– 为Spring监听器提供启动参数 –>
<context-param>
   <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
   <!– 这里如果bean.xml在包cn.ssh下,那么就应该写为:cn/ssh/bean.xml –>
   <param-value>classpath:bean.xml</param-value>
</context-param>

<!– 配置Spring的监听器 –>
<listener>
   <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
</listener>

如果没有使用contextConfigLocation指定配置文件,则Spring自动查找applicationContext.xml配置文件;如果有contextConfigLocation,则利用该参数确定配置文件。如果无法找到适合的配置文件,Spring将无法初始化。

Spring根据指定的文件创建WebApplicationContext对象,并将其保存在Web应用的ServletContext中。大部分情况下,应用中的Bean无需感受到ApplicationContext的存在,只要用ApplicationContext中的IoC即可。

这个监听器所在的jar包为:


如果需要利用ApplicationContext的实例,可以通过如下代码获取:

package com.ssh.domain;

import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;

import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.web.context.support.WebApplicationContextUtils;

import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;
import com.ssh.test.TestAdd;

publicclassTestActionextendsActionSupport{

   @Override
   public String execute()throws Exception {

       HttpServletRequest request = ServletActionContext.getRequest();
       ServletContext servletContext = request.getServletContext();
       // 这里不是通过依赖注入,而是直接从容器中拿
       WebApplicationContext ctx = WebApplicationContextUtils.getWebApplicationContext(servletContext);

       // 也可以是下面这样的
       WebApplicationContext ctx1 = (WebApplicationContext)
               servletContext.getAttribute(WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE);

       if(ctx == ctx1) {
           System.out.println(“两次获得对象是一样的”);
       }

       TestAdd testAdd = (TestAdd) ctx.getBean(“testAdd”);
       testAdd.add();

       return NONE;
   }
}

TestAdd.java

package com.ssh.test;

publicclassTestAdd {

   publicvoidadd() {
       System.out.println(“通过WebContext获得的而打印….”);
   }

}


测试结果为:


打开源码,就蛋疼了,有封装了一下:

package org.springframework.web.context;

import javax.servlet.ServletContextEvent;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;

/**
* Bootstrap listener to start up and shut down Spring’s root {@link WebApplicationContext}.
* Simply delegates to {@link ContextLoader} as well as to {@link ContextCleanupListener}.
*
* <p>This listener should be registered after {@link org.springframework.web.util.Log4jConfigListener}
* in {@code web.xml}, if the latter is used.
*
* <p>As of Spring 3.1, {@code ContextLoaderListener} supports injecting the root web
* application context via the {@link #ContextLoaderListener(WebApplicationContext)}
* constructor, allowing for programmatic configuration in Servlet 3.0+ environments.
* See {@link org.springframework.web.WebApplicationInitializer} for usage examples.
*
* @author Juergen Hoeller
* @author Chris Beams
* @since 17.02.2003
* @see #setContextInitializers
* @see org.springframework.web.WebApplicationInitializer
* @see org.springframework.web.util.Log4jConfigListener
*/
publicclassContextLoaderListenerextendsContextLoaderimplementsServletContextListener{

   /**
    * Create a new {@code ContextLoaderListener} that will create a web application
    * context based on the “contextClass” and “contextConfigLocation” servlet
    * context-params. See {@link ContextLoader} superclass documentation for details on
    * default values for each.
    * <p>This constructor is typically used when declaring {@code ContextLoaderListener}
    * as a {@code <listener>} within {@code web.xml}, where a no-arg constructor is
    * required.
    * <p>The created application context will be registered into the ServletContext under
    * the attribute name {@link WebApplicationContext#ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE}
    * and the Spring application context will be closed when the {@link #contextDestroyed}
    * lifecycle method is invoked on this listener.
    * @see ContextLoader
    * @see #ContextLoaderListener(WebApplicationContext)
    * @see #contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent)
    * @see #contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent)
    */
   publicContextLoaderListener(){
   }

   /**
    * Create a new {@code ContextLoaderListener} with the given application context. This
    * constructor is useful in Servlet 3.0+ environments where instance-based
    * registration of listeners is possible through the {@link javax.servlet.ServletContext#addListener}
    * API.
    * <p>The context may or may not yet be {@linkplain
    * org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext#refresh() refreshed}. If it
    * (a) is an implementation of {@link ConfigurableWebApplicationContext} and
    * (b) has <strong>not</strong> already been refreshed (the recommended approach),
    * then the following will occur:
    * <ul>
    * <li>If the given context has not already been assigned an {@linkplain
    * org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext#setId id}, one will be assigned to it</li>
    * <li>{@code ServletContext} and {@code ServletConfig} objects will be delegated to
    * the application context</li>
    * <li>{@link #customizeContext} will be called</li>
    * <li>Any {@link org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer ApplicationContextInitializer}s
    * specified through the “contextInitializerClasses” init-param will be applied.</li>
    * <li>{@link org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext#refresh refresh()} will be called</li>
    * </ul>
    * If the context has already been refreshed or does not implement
    * {@code ConfigurableWebApplicationContext}, none of the above will occur under the
    * assumption that the user has performed these actions (or not) per his or her
    * specific needs.
    * <p>See {@link org.springframework.web.WebApplicationInitializer} for usage examples.
    * <p>In any case, the given application context will be registered into the
    * ServletContext under the attribute name {@link
    * WebApplicationContext#ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE} and the Spring
    * application context will be closed when the {@link #contextDestroyed} lifecycle
    * method is invoked on this listener.
    * @param context the application context to manage
    * @see #contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent)
    * @see #contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent)
    */
   publicContextLoaderListener(WebApplicationContext context){
       super(context);
   }


   /**
    * Initialize the root web application context.
    */
   @Override
   publicvoidcontextInitialized(ServletContextEvent event){
       initWebApplicationContext(event.getServletContext());
   }


   /**
    * Close the root web application context.
    */
   @Override
   publicvoidcontextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent event){
       closeWebApplicationContext(event.getServletContext());
       ContextCleanupListener.cleanupAttributes(event.getServletContext());
   }

}

源码果然是个好东西,平时敲代码那会注意到这么多细节。这个类不复杂,两个构造方法,外加一个初始化的时候创建Spring容器和服务关闭的时候对容器的清理,封装了之后还要看其他的类,哎。

首先第一段注释是对这个类的描述:

这个启动监听器是用开启和关闭Spring的root的,这里他用了root而不是容器。简单的代理给了ContextLoader和ContextCleanupListener这两个类来处理。如果这个org.springframework.web.util.Log4jConfigListener被用到了,那么ContextLoaderListener应该在它之后注册。

在Spring3.1中,ContextLoaderListener支持通过ContextLoaderListener(WebApplicationContext)这个构造方法向应用上下文中注入root(也就是Spring的容器),这样可以以编程的方式来配置Servlet 3.0+的环境。

第二段注释是,新建一个ContextLoaderListener的类将会基于Servlet的”contextClass”和”contextCofigLocation”这两个参数来创建web应用的上下文。

翻译的好累啊,反正意思差不多就是这样5555….

来看这段代码:

/**
* Initialize the root web application context.
*/
@Override
publicvoidcontextInitialized(ServletContextEvent event) {
   initWebApplicationContext(event.getServletContext());

}


这个initWebApplicationContext方法是ContextLoad.java这个类里面的方法。

/**
* Initialize Spring’s web application context for the given servlet context,
* using the application context provided at construction time, or creating a new one
* according to the “{@link #CONTEXT_CLASS_PARAM contextClass}” and
* “{@link #CONFIG_LOCATION_PARAM contextConfigLocation}” context-params.
* @param servletContext current servlet context
* @return the new WebApplicationContext
* @see #ContextLoader(WebApplicationContext)
* @see #CONTEXT_CLASS_PARAM
* @see #CONFIG_LOCATION_PARAM
*/
public WebApplicationContext initWebApplicationContext(ServletContext servletContext){
   if (servletContext.getAttribute(WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE) != null) {
           thrownew IllegalStateException(
                   “Cannot initialize context because there is already a root application context present – “ +
                   “check whether you have multiple ContextLoader* definitions in your web.xml!”);
       }

   Log logger = LogFactory.getLog(ContextLoader.class);
   servletContext.log(“Initializing Spring root WebApplicationContext”);
   if (logger.isInfoEnabled()) {
       logger.info(“Root WebApplicationContext: initialization started”);
   }
   long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

   try {
       // Store context in local instance variable, to guarantee that
       // it is available on ServletContext shutdown.
       if (this.context == null) {
           this.context = createWebApplicationContext(servletContext);
       }
       if (this.context instanceof ConfigurableWebApplicationContext) {
           ConfigurableWebApplicationContext cwac = (ConfigurableWebApplicationContext) this.context;
           if (!cwac.isActive()) {
               // The context has not yet been refreshed -> provide services such as
               // setting the parent context, setting the application context id, etc
               if (cwac.getParent() == null) {
                   // The context instance was injected without an explicit parent ->
                   // determine parent for root web application context, if any.
                   ApplicationContext parent = loadParentContext(servletContext);
                   cwac.setParent(parent);
               }
               configureAndRefreshWebApplicationContext(cwac, servletContext);
           }
       }
       servletContext.setAttribute(WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, this.context);

       ClassLoader ccl = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
       if (ccl == ContextLoader.class.getClassLoader()) {
           currentContext = this.context;
       }
       elseif (ccl != null) {
           currentContextPerThread.put(ccl, this.context);
       }

       if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
           logger.debug(“Published root WebApplicationContext as ServletContext attribute with name [“ +
                       WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE + “]”);
       }
       if (logger.isInfoEnabled()) {
           long elapsedTime = System.currentTimeMillis() – startTime;
           logger.info(“Root WebApplicationContext: initialization completed in “ + elapsedTime + ” ms”);
       }

       returnthis.context;
   }
   catch (RuntimeException ex) {
       logger.error(“Context initialization failed”, ex);
       servletContext.setAttribute(WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, ex);
       throw ex;
   }
   catch (Error err) {
       logger.error(“Context initialization failed”, err);
       servletContext.setAttribute(WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, err);
       throw err;
   }
}

ContextLoad.initWebApplicationContext是为给定的servlet context来初始化web应用的上下文的。

业务逻辑解读:

首先从ServletContext中看看有没有Spring创建的这个容器;然后为ContextLoader存一份实例变量,使得在ServletContext关闭之后仍可以访问;

this.context = createWebApplicationContext(servletContext);

这句就是创建一个WebApplicationContext相当于我们自己加载配置文件的那个类。

configureAndRefreshWebApplicationContext(cwac, servletContext);

这句话也很明显,就是配置并且刷新WebAppCtx的。

servletContext.setAttribute(WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, this.context);

这句将创建的Spring的context作为属性放到servletContext中。

returnthis.context;

然后就返回了Spring的容器了…..是不是简洁(装逼装不下去了),调用链好长。

暂时只能分析到这里!

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